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The Bee Act (1980 ) Full

Bees Act 1980 1980 CHAPTER 12 An Act to make new provision for the control of pests and diseases affecting bees. [20th March 1980] Be it enactedby the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:— 1Control of pests and diseases affecting bees (1)The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the Secretary of State for Scotland and the Secretary of State for Wales, acting jointly, may by order make such provision as they think fit for the purpose of preventing the introduction into or spreading within Great Britain of pests or diseases affecting bees. (2)Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1) above, for the purpose there mentioned an order under this section— (a)may prohibit or regulate the importation into or movement within Great Britain of bees and combs, bee products, hives, containers and other appliances used in connection with keeping or transporting bees, and of any other thing which has or may have been exposed to infection with any pest or disease to which the order applies; (b)may make provision with respect to any of the matters specified in the Schedule to this Act; and (c)may make different provision for different cases or different areas. (3)Any authorised person may examine any bees or other things subject to control under an order under this section, and may take samples of them, in order to see if they are free from infection. (4)Where any bees or other things subject to control under any such order are found to be infected, or to have been exposed to infection, with any pest or disease to which the order applies, any authorised person may destroy them by such means as he thinks fit, or cause them to be so destroyed. (5)Without prejudice to subsection (4) above, where any bees or other things are imported into Great Britain in contravention of an order under this section, any authorised person may destroy them by such means as he thinks fit, or cause them to be so destroyed, and may do so with or without first allowing an opportunity for them to be re-exported. (6)No compensation shall be payable in respect of any exercise of the powers conferred by subsections (3) and (5) above. (7)Any person who— (a)imports any bees or other things into Great Britain in contravention of an order under this section; (b)moves any bees or other things within Great Britain in contravention of any such order ; or (c)otherwise contravenes or fails to comply with the provisions of any such order or with any condition imposed by any licence issued under any such order; shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding £1,000. (8)Any expenses incurred by any of the Ministers mentioned in subsection (1) above under this section (or under any order made under this section) shall be defrayed out of moneys provided by Parliament. (9)The power to make an order under this section shall be exercisable by statutory instrument, which shall be subject to annulment by resolution of either House of Parliament. 2Power of entry (1)For the purpose of exercising any power conferred on him by or under section 1 of this Act an authorised person may at any time enter— (a)any premises or other place; or (b)any vessel, boat, hovercraft, aircraft or vehicle of any other description; on or in which he has reasonable grounds for supposing there are or have been any bees or other things subject to control under an order under that section. (2)A person seeking to enter any premises or other place, or any vessel, boat, hovercraft, aircraft or other vehicle in exercise of the power of entry under this section, shall, if so required by or on behalf of the owner or occupier or person in charge, produce evidence of his authority before entering. (3)Any person who intentionally obstructs a person acting in exercise of the power of entry under this section shall be liable on summary conviction, or, in Scotland, on conviction by a court of summary jurisdiction, to a fine not exceeding £200. 3Interpretation In this Act— ” authorised person ” means a person generally or specially authorised in writing by the responsible Minister ; ” bees ” includes bees in any stage of their life cycle ; ” bee product ” means any natural product of the activities of bees (such as, for example, honey or beeswax) in its natural state; and ” the responsible Minister ” means— (a) in relation to England, the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food; and (b) in relation to Scotland and Wales, the Secretary of State. 4Enactment of same provisions for Northern Ireland An Order in Council under paragraph 1(1)(b) of Schedule 1 to the Northern Ireland Act 1974 (legislation for Northern Ireland in the interim period) which contains a statement that it operates only so as to make for Northern Ireland provision corresponding to this Act— (a)shall not be subject to paragraph 1(4) and (5) of that Schedule (affirmative resolution by both Houses of Parliament); but (b)shall be subject to annulment by resolution of either House. 5Short title, commencement, repeals, transitional provision and extent (1)This Act may be cited as the Bees Act 1980. (2)This Act shall come into force on such day as the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the Secretary of State for Scotland and the Secretary of State for Wales, acting jointly, may by order made by statutory instrument appoint. (3)The following enactments shall cease to have effect— sections 11 and 12(8) of the Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1941 ; section 10 of the Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1954. (4)Without prejudice to section 17(2)(b) of the Interpretation Act 1978 (effect of repeal and re-enactment in relation to subordinate legislation), any order made under section 11 of the Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1941 which is in force at the commencement of this Act shall have effect as if made under section 1 of this Act (and may be revoked or amended by an order made under section 1 accordingly). (5)This Act, with the exception of section 4, does not extend to Northern Ireland. Schedules ScheduleSpecific Matters with respect to which Provision may be made by Orders under section 1 1The conditions to be observed before, during and after importation. 2Exemptions from prohibitions on importation in the order by means of licences, whether general or specific and whether conditional or unconditional, issued in accordance with the order (whether on or before importation) by the responsible Minister or (where the order so provides) by any authorised person. 3The revocation of any licence issued in accordance with the order and the variation of any conditions attached to a licence so issued. 4Securing information with respect to— (a)the persons who keep bees ; (b)the occurrence of any pest or disease to which the order applies ; (c)the country or place of origin or consignment, contacts in transit and destination of any bees or other things subject to control under the order (whether the information is required on, before or following their importation into or transportation within Great Britain) ; (d)any other matter relevant to determining whether any bees or other things subject to control under the order have been exposed to infection with any pest or disease to which the order applies. 5The circumstances in which and the time when any bees or other things brought into Great Britain are to be regarded for the purposes of this Act as being imported into Great Britain. 6Treatment of any bees found to be infected or to have been exposed to infection with any pest or disease to which the order applies. 7Cleansing and disinfection. 8Marking of hives or other containers for identification. 9Recovery of costs. 10Payment of compensation for bees or other things subject to control destroyed in accordance with section 1(4). 11Any matter incidental or supplementary to any of the matters mentioned above.

The Bee Act (1980) [Guide]

The Bee Act (1980)

Introduction

The Bees Act 1980 (citation 1980 c.12) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

An Act to make new provision for the control of pests and diseases affecting bees. It seeks to stop the damage caused by diseases, chemicals and pests that damage the wellbeing of bees.

Territorial extent England and Wales; Scotland

It repealed the Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1941.

Royal Assent 20 March 1980

Commencement 20 March 1980

Status: Current legislation

Provisions

The Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (now the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), along with the Secretary of State for Scotland and the Secretary of State for Wales must convene in the case of any threat posed to bees in Britain by diseases or pests and enact the powers granted to them in this legislation.

Powers

If all three decide that a threat is posed to the health of bees, they may prohibit the transportation into or around the United Kingdom of bees, honeycomb, beehives or anything connected with beekeeping. They may appoint any person (in writing) they choose to seize and examine bees for disease.

Any bees found to be diseased may be destroyed if the inspector sees fit.

Bees or related equipment imported into Britain may also be destroyed at the discretion of government officials. No compensation is available for those whose bees are destroyed.

Any expenses incurred during this process were to be compensated by Parliament.

Power of forced entry was also given to officials who suspect diseased bees to be on the premises (“any premises or other place, or any vessel, boat, hovercraft, aircraft or other vehicle”).

Offences

Offences

It was made an offence to transport bees into or around Britain while the Act was in force – either by importing them, or by failing to cooperate with government orders. A maximum fine of £1,000 was introduced for committing this offence.

Any person who refused government officials entry to any premises or other place, or any vessel, boat, hovercraft, aircraft or other vehicle which was suspected to harbour diseased bees was to be charged with obstruction of justice and fined up to £200.

Application

The Act does not extend to Northern Ireland.

The full copy of the legislation can be found here in pdf format

The Honey (England) Regulations 2003

29th August 2003
Laid before Parliament 4th September 2003
Coming into force 25th September 2003
The Secretary of State in exercise of the powers conferred on him by sections 16(1)(e), 17(1), 26(1) and (3) and 48(1) of the Food Safety Act 1990(1) and now vested in him(2) and having had regard in accordance with section 48(4A) of that Act to relevant advice given by the Food Standards Agency and after consultation as required by Article 9 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety(3) and in accordance with section 48(4) and (4B) of the Food Safety Act 1990, makes the following Regulations:

Title, application and commencement

1. These Regulations may be cited as the Honey (England) Regulations 2003, apply to England only and come into force on 25th September 2003.

Interpretation

  2.—(1) In these Regulations— “the Act” means the Food Safety Act 1990; “the Agency” means the Food Standards Agency; “brood” means any immature stage of the honeybee including the egg, larva and pupa and any honeybee which has not emerged from its cell in a honeycomb; “catering establishment” means a restaurant, canteen, club, public house, school, hospital or similar establishment (including a vehicle or a fixed or mobile stall) where, in the course of a business, food is prepared for delivery to the ultimate consumer and is ready for consumption without further preparation; “Directive 2001/110” means Council Directive 2001/110/EC relating to honey(4); “EEA Agreement” means the Agreement on the European Economic Area(5) signed at Oporto on 2nd May 1992 as adjusted by the Protocol(6) signed at Brussels on 17th March 1993; “EEA State” means a State which is a Contracting Party to the EEA Agreement; “food authority” does not include—
(a)
the council of a district in a non-metropolitan county in England except where the county functions have been transferred to that council pursuant to a structural change; or
(b)
the appropriate Treasurer referred to in section 5(1)(c) of the Act (which deals with the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple);
“honey” means the natural sweet substance produced by Apis mellifera bees from the nectar of plants or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant-sucking insects on the living parts of plants which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in honeycombs to ripen and mature; “ingredient” has the meaning assigned to it by the 1996 Regulations; “labelling” has the meaning assigned to it by the 1996 Regulations; “preparation” includes manufacture and any form of processing or treatment; and “the 1996 Regulations” means the Food Labelling Regulations 1996(7); “reserved description”, as regards any specified honey product means any description specified in relation to that product in column 1 of Schedule 1 (as read with the Notes relating to that Schedule); “sell” includes offer or expose for sale and includes have in possession for sale, and “sale” shall be construed accordingly; “specified honey product”, subject to paragraph (2) means any food specified in column 2 of Schedule 1; “ultimate consumer” means any person who buys food otherwise than—
(a)
for the purpose of resale,
(b)
for the purposes of a catering establishment, or
(c)
for the purposes of a manufacturing business.
  (2) Notwithstanding the fact that a food is specified in Column 2 of Schedule 1, it will only be treated as a specified honey product for the purpose of these Regulations—   (i)if it meets the relevant specifications contained in Schedule 2 as read with the notes relating to that Schedule, and   (ii)there has not been added to it any other ingredient and it is as far as possible free from organic or inorganic matters foreign to its composition.   (3) Any other expression used in both these Regulations and in Directive 2001/110 has the same meaning in these Regulations as in that Directive.

Reserved descriptions

3. No person shall sell to the ultimate consumer or to a catering establishment any food with a label, whether or not attached to or printed on the wrapper or container, which bears, comprises or includes any reserved description or any derivative thereof or any word or description substantially similar thereto unless—   (a)such food is the specified honey product to which the reserved description relates;   (b)such description, derivative or word is used in such a context as to indicate explicitly or by clear implication that the substance to which it relates is only an ingredient of that food;   (c)such description, derivative or word is used in such a context as to indicate explicitly or by clear implication that such food is not and does not contain a specified honey product.

Labelling and description of specified honey products

  4.—(1) Without prejudice to the generality of Part II of the 1996 Regulations, no person shall sell to the ultimate consumer or to a catering establishment any specified honey product unless it is marked or labelled with the following particulars —   (a)a reserved description of the product;   (b)in the case of baker’s honey the words “intended for cooking only” which words shall appear on the label in close proximity to the product name;   (c)the country or countries of origin where the honey has been harvested save that if the honey originates in more than one Member State or third country the country of origin may be replaced with one of the following as appropriate—   (i)“blend of EC honeys”,   (ii)“blend of non-EC honeys”,   (iii)“blend of EC and non-EC honeys”;   (2) No person shall sell to the ultimate consumer or to a catering establishment any filtered honey or baker’s honey which is marked or labelled with information relating to floral or vegetable origin, regional, territorial or topographical origin or specific quality criteria.   (3) Where pursuant to note 2 of Schedule 1, the reserved description “honey” has been used in the product name of a compound foodstuff containing baker’s honey, no person shall sell such a compound foodstuff unless the list of ingredients includes the term “baker’s honey”.

Sale of filtered honey or baker’s honey in bulk containers or packs

  5.—(1) No person shall sell any filtered honey or baker’s honey in bulk containers or packs unless such bulk containers and packs are labelled with their respective reserved description of the product and any trade documents clearly indicate the reserved description of the product.   (2) For the purpose of this paragraph trade documents includes all the documents relating to the sale, transportation, storage or delivery of the product.

Manner of marking or labelling

6. Regulations 35, 36(1) and (5) and 38 of the 1996 Regulations (which relate to the manner of marking or labelling of food) shall apply to the particulars with which a specified honey product is required to be marked or labelled by regulations 4(1)(a) to (c) and (3) of these Regulations as if they were particulars with which a food is required to be marked or labelled by the 1996 Regulations.

Penalties and enforcement

  7.—(1) Any person who contravenes regulations 3, 4 or 5 of these Regulations shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.   (2) Each food authority shall enforce and execute these Regulations in its area.

Defence in relation to exports

8. In any proceedings for an offence under these Regulations it shall be a defence for the person charged to prove—   (a)that the food in respect of which the offence is alleged to have been committed was intended for export to a country which has legislation analogous to these Regulations and that the food complies with that legislation; and   (b)in the case of export to an EEA State, that the legislation complies with the provisions of Directive 2001/110/EC.

Application of various provisions of the Act

9. The following provisions of the Act shall apply for the purposes of these Regulations with the modification that any reference in those provisions to the Act or any Part thereof shall be construed as a reference to these Regulations—   (a)section 2 (extended meaning of sale etc.);   (b)section 3 (presumptions that food is intended for human consumption);   (c)section 20 (offences due to fault of another person);   (d)section 21 (defence of due diligence), as it applies for the purposes of section 8, 14 or 15;   (e)section 22 (defence of publication in the course of a business);   (f)section 30(8) (which relates to documentary evidence);   (g)section 33(1) (obstruction etc. of officers);   (h)section 33(2), with the modification that the reference to “any such requirement as is mentioned in subsection (1)(b) above” shall be deemed to be a reference to any such requirement as is mentioned in section 33(1)(b) as applied by sub-paragraph (g);   (i)section 35(1) (punishment of offences), insofar as it relates to offences under section 33(1) as applied by sub-paragraph (g);   (j)section 35(2) and (3) insofar as it relates to offences under section 33(2) as applied by sub-paragraph (h);   (k)section 36 (offences by bodies corporate);   (l)section 44 (protection of officers acting in good faith).

Amendment and revocations

  10.—(1) The Honey Regulations 1976(8), in so far as they apply to England, are revoked.   (2) The following entries relating to the Honey Regulations 1976 shall (insofar as the following Regulations apply to England), be omitted —   (a)in the Food (Revision of Penalties) Regulations 1982(9), in Schedule 1;   (b)in the Food (Revision of Penalties) Regulations 1985(10), in Part I to Schedule1;   (c)in the Food Safety Act 1990 (Consequential Modifications) (England and Wales) Order 1990(11), in Part 1 to Schedule 1, Part I to Schedule 2, Part 1 to Schedule 3 and Schedules 6 and 12;   (d)in the Food Safety (Exports) Regulations 1991(12), in Part 1 to Schedule 1;   (e)in the Food (Forces Exemptions) (Revocations) Regulations 1992(13), in Part 1 to Schedule 1;   (f)in the Miscellaneous Food Additives Regulations 1995(14), in Schedule 9;   (g)in the Food Labelling Regulations 1996(15), in Schedule 9.   (3) In the Miscellaneous Food Additives Regulations 1995, in so far as they apply to England, there shall be substituted for the reference to Directive 74/409/EEC in Schedule 6, a reference to Directive 2001/110/EC.   (4) In the 1996 Regulations, in so far as they apply to England, Regulation 4(2)(c) is revoked.

Transitional provisions

11. In any proceedings for an offence under these Regulations it shall be a defence for the person charged to prove that—   (a)the food concerned was marked or labelled before 1st August 2004; and   (b)the matters constituting the alleged offence would not have constituted an offence under the Honey Regulations 1976 as they stood immediately before the coming into force of these Regulations.
Signed by authority of the Secretary of State for Health
Melanie Johnson Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, Department of Health 29th August 2003
 
Regulation 2(1)

SCHEDULE 1SPECIFIED HONEY PRODUCTS AND THEIR RESERVED DESCRIPTIONS

Column 1 Column 2
Reserved descriptions Specified honey product
  • Note 1: The description “honey” may be used for specified honey products specified in column 2 of items 1a, 1b, 2, 5 and 6 of Schedule 1.
  • Note 2: Where the specified honey product specified in column 2 of item 9 is used as an ingredient in a compound foodstuff, the reserved description “honey” may be used in the product name of that compound foodstuff.
  • Note 3: Except in the case of products specified in column 2 of items 7 and 8 a specified honey product may additionally be described by—
    (i)
    its floral or vegetable origin, if the product comes wholly or mainly from the indicated source and possesses the organoleptic, physio-chemical and microscopic characteristics of the source;
    (ii)
    its regional, territorial or topographical origin, if the product comes entirely from the indicated source; and
    (iii)
    its specific quality criteria.
1a. blossom honey or}1b. nectar honey} honey obtained from the nectar of plants
2. honeydew honey honey obtained mainly from excretions of plant sucking insects (Hemiptera) on the living part of plants or secretions of living parts of plants
3. comb honey honey stored by bees in the cells of freshly built broodless combs or thin comb foundation sheets made solely of beeswax and sold in sealed whole combs or sections of such combs
4a. chunk honey or}4b. cut comb in honey} honey which contains one or more pieces of comb honey
5. drained honey honey obtained by draining de-capped broodless combs
6. extracted honey honey obtained by centrifuging de-capped broodless combs
7. pressed honey honey obtained by pressing broodless combs with or without the application of moderate heat not exceeding 45°C
8. filtered honey honey obtained by removing foreign inorganic or organic matters in such a way as to result in the significant removal of pollen
9. baker’s honey honey which is—
(a)
suitable for industrial uses or as an ingredient in other foodstuffs which are then processed; and
(b)
may—
(i)
have a foreign taste or odour,
(ii)
have begun to ferment or have fermented, or
(iii)
have been overheated
 
Regulation 2(2)

SCHEDULE 2SPECIFICATIONS FOR SPECIFIED HONEY PRODUCTS

  • Note 1: When placed on the market as honey or used in any product intended for human consumption, honey must not:
    (a)
    except in the case of baker’s honey, have any foreign tastes or odours, have begun to ferment or have fermented, or have been heated in such a way that the natural enzymes have been either destroyed or significantly inactivated.
    (b)
    have an artificially changed acidity.
  • Note 2: No pollen or constituent particular to honey may be removed except where this is unavoidable in the removal of foreign inorganic or organic matter.
1. Sugar content
1.1. Fructose and glucose content (sum of both)
  • –blossom honey
  • –honeydew honey, blends of honeydew honey with blossom honey
not less than 60 g/100 gnot less than 45 g/100 g
1.2. Sucrose content
  • –in general
  • –false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Menzies Banksia (Banksia menziesii), French honeysuckle (Hedysarum), red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), leatherwood (Eucryphia lucida, Eucryphia milliganii), Citrus spp.
  • –lavender (Lavandula spp.), borage (Borago officinalis)
not more than 5 g/100 gnot more than 10 g/100 gnot more than 15 g/100 g
2. Moisture content
  • –in general
  • –heather (Calluna) and baker’s honey in general
  • –baker’s honey from heather (Calluna)
not more than 20%not more than 23%not more than 25%
3. Water-insoluble content
  • –in general
  • –pressed honey
not more than 0.1 g/100 gnot more than 0.5 g/100 g
4. Electrical conductivity
  • –honey not listed below and blends of these honeys
  • –honeydew and chestnut honey and blends of these except with those listed below
  • –exceptions: strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), bell heather (Erica), eucalyptus, lime (Tilia spp.), ling heather (Calluna vulgaris), manuka or jelly bush (Leptospermum), tea tree (Melaleuca spp.)
not more than 0.8 mS/cmnot less than 0.8 mS/cm
5. Free acid
  • –in general
  • –baker’s honey
not more than 50 milli-equivalents acid per 1000 grammesnot more than 80 milli-equivalents acid per 1000 grammes
6. Diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content determined after processing and blending
(a)
Diastase activity (Schade scale)
  • – in general, except baker’s honey
  • – honeys with low natural enzyme content (e.g. citrus honeys) and an HMF content of not more than 15 mg/kg
(b)
HMF
  • –in general, except baker’s honey
  • –honeys of declared origin from regions with tropical climate and blends of these honeys
not less than 8not less than 3not more than 40 mg/kg (subject to the provisions of (a), second indent)not more than 80 mg/kg
 

Explanatory Note

(This note is not part of the Regulations) These Regulations, which apply to England, implement Council Directive 2001/110/EC concerning honey (OJ No. L10, 12.1.2002, p.48). They revoke and replace the Honey Regulations 1976, as amended, in relation to England. The Regulations—   (a)prescribe definitions and reserved descriptions for certain specified honey products (regulation 2 and Schedules 1 and 2);   (b)restrict the use of reserved descriptions to the specified honey products to which they relate (regulation 3);   (c)prescribe labelling requirements for such products (regulations 4, 5 and 6);   (d)specify a penalty, enforcement authorities and, in accordance with Articles 2 and 3 of Council Directive 89/397/EEC on the official control of foodstuffs (OJ No. L186, 30.6.89, p.23), a defence in relation to exports (regulations 7 and 8);   (e)apply various provisions of the Food Safety Act 1990 (regulation 9);   (f)revoke the previous Regulations and make consequential amendments and transitional provisions (regulations 10 and 11). A Regulatory Impact Assessment has been prepared and placed in the Library of each House of Parliament, together with a Transposition Note setting out how the main elements of the European legislation referred to above are transposed in these Regulations. Copies may be obtained from the Food Labelling and Standards Division of the Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH.
(1)
1990 c. 16.
(2)
Functions formerly exercisable by “the Ministers” (being, in relation to England and Wales and acting jointly, the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Secretaries of State respectively concerned with health in England and food and health in Wales and, in relation to Scotland, the Secretary of State) are now exercisable in relation to England by the Secretary of State pursuant to paragraph 8 of Schedule 5 to the Food Standards Act 1999 (1999 c. 28), and paragraphs 12 and 21 of that Schedule amend respectively sections 17 and 48 of the Food Safety 1990 Act. Functions of “the Ministers” so far as exercisable in relation to Wales were transferred to the National Assembly for Wales by the National Assembly for Wales (Transfer of Functions) Order 1999 (S.I. 1999/672), as read with section 40(3) of the 1999 Act, and those functions so far as exercisable in relation to Scotland were transferred to the Scottish Ministers by section 53 of the Scotland Act 1998 (1998 c. 46), as read with section 40(2) of the 1999 Act. Regulation 13(4) of the Food Standards Act 1999 (Transitional and Consequential Provisions and Savings) (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 (S.I. 2000/656) expressly authorises the Secretary of State to amend or revoke existing Regulations made or having effect as if made by the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (whether with others or not) under the Food Safety Act 1990.
(3)
OJ No. L31, 1.2.2002, p.1.
(4)
OJ No. L10, 12.1.2002, p.47, as adopted by EEA Joint Committee Decision 99/2002.
(5)
OJ No. L1, 3.1.94, p.1.
(6)
OJ No. L1, 3.1.94, p.571.
(7)
S.I. 1996/1499; the relevant amending instrument is S.I. 1998/1398.
(8)
S.I. 1976/1832 as amended by S.I. 1990/2486, S.I. 1991/1476, S.I. 1992/2596 and SI.